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UNIT EIGHT

Topic: Money and Business

Grammar: Revision

Ex. 1. Underline the most suitable word

  1. I haven’t got enough money, I’m afraid. Could you borrow/lend me some?

  2. This car is too expensive. We can’t afford/pay it.

  3. How much did you pay/take for your new car?

  4. There’s a small flat to hire/let in Bridge Street.

  5. Harry has a good salary. He gains/makes over £20,000 a year.

  6. How much do you earn/gain in your new job?

  7. We would appreciate if you would close/settle your bill as soon as possible.

  8. She is a good dentist, but she doesn’t charge/spend too much.

  9. I bought this coat in the sales. It was decreased/reduced a lot.

  10. We had a good holiday but it was rather costly/valuable.

  11. Unfortunately the old painting I found turned out to be priceless/worthless.

  12. I’m going to the bank to remove/withdraw the money for the rent.

  13. Mary was awarded a grant/subsidy to study child psychology.

  14. The manager disappeared with the takings/wages from the concert.

  15. Jack made his fortune/treasure buying and selling property.

  16. By the time Kate retired she was a fortunate/wealthy businesswoman.

Ex. 2. Replace each word or phrase in italics with a word which has an opposite meaning:

cash deny generous occasionally poverty profit purchase refuse take out well off worthless

  1. I was surprised by how mean Charles was. _________

  2. Kate says that she is very hard up at the moment. ___________

  3. Last year their business made a huge loss. __________

  4. I’d like to pay in £100 please. __________

  5. Most people in the city live in great prosperity. _____________

  6. The manager insisted that I paid by cheque. _________

  7. Jean was able to make only one sale during the morning. ___________

  8. The old painting I found in the loft turned out to be valuable. ____________

  9. Everybody must have been surprised to hear him admit his guilt. ___________

  10. It was difficult to guess the reason why she agreed to join their company. ____________

  11. They saw each other regularly at board meetings. _____________

Ex. 3. Complete each sentence with a suitable word.

bill credit card cheque duty loan pension rent receipt safe tax tip value wealth

1. The old couple had only a small .................... to live on. 2. My uncle Sam acquired his considerable ..................... selling cars. 3. David never carries cash with him and pays for everything by ........................... 4. I wouldn’t have been able to buy my boat without a bank .................... 5. The shop won’t change any goods without the original ................... 6. Jack didn’t like the waiter so he didn’t leave a ............... 7. The house is not in very good condition so the ................... is low. 8. We keep all our money and valuables in the ................. in the floor. 9. ‘Market .................’ is a commercial term meaning the sum for which a certain thing could be sold. 10. Half of my salary disappears in ................. 11. We haven’t paid the telephone .................. If we don’t do it soon, they will cut off the phone. 12. There’s no ................. on the kind of goods we import. 13. I didn’t have enough money on me, so I paid for the goods by ..................

Ex. 4. Match each sentence (a-h) with a suitable response (1-8).

  1. Who do I make the cheque out to? ................

  2. We seem to be spending a lot of money lately. .................

  3. The house has been burnt down! What are we going to do? .................

  4. How much do you want for this drawing? ....................

  5. Did you inherit this house? ..................

  6. Do we still owe the bank any money? ....................

  7. Can we change money at the hotel to pay the bill? ..................

  8. Why are you putting so much money in the bank? .................

  1. Sorry, but it’s not for sale.

  2. I’m saving up to buy a new motorbike.

  3. Perhaps we should try to economise a bit.

  4. Yes, my Aunt Clara left it to me.

  5. Well, we’ve nearly paid it all back.

  6. To JB Woolbury PLC.

  7. I think they accept travellers cheques anyway.

  8. Don’t worry, we’re insured.

Ex. 5. Choose the most suitable word to complete each sentence.

  1. I bought these shoes in the sale. They were a real ....................

  1. cheap B) economy C) bargain D) purchase

  1. If you put your money in the bank, it will earn ten per cent .................

  1. interest B) profit C) deposit D) investment

  1. John asked his parents if they would pay off his .....................

  1. rents B) debts C) accounts D) credits

  1. Adults have to pay £8 to get in, but children under fourteen can get in .................

  1. free B) nothing C) penniless D) open

  1. I’m trying to save for my holidays so I’m putting ............. some money each week.

  1. in B) aside C) behind D) up

  1. Just a minute! You’ve forgotten to .................. your cheque!

  1. mark B) make C) place D) sign

  1. The blackmailer asked for the money in used ...................

  1. notes B) cheques C) paper D) cash

  1. I gave the assistant ten euros and she gave me four euros .....................

  1. rest B) money C) coins D) change

Ex. 6. Match the following words with a suitable definition

accountant agent cashier customer heir investor pensioner swindler

  1. Someone who inherits money or property. .......................

  2. Someone who has retired. ........................

  3. Someone who keeps or checks financial records. ..........................

  4. Someone who buys things in a shop. ...........................

  5. Someone who pays out money in a bank. ........................

  6. Someone who represents others in business. ..........................

  7. Someone who puts money into a business. .........................

  8. Someone who cheats people out of money. .........................

TEXT ONE

A VISIT TO THE BANK

The Depository Bank of Zurich was a twenty-four-hour Geldschrank bank offering the full modern array of anonymous services in the tradition of the Swiss numbered account. Maintaining offices in Zurich, Kuala Lumpur, New York, and Paris, the bank had expanded its services in recent years to offer anonymous computer source code escrow services and faceless digitized backup.

The bread and butter of its operation was by far its oldest and simplest offering - the anonyme Lager - blind drop services, otherwise known as anonymous safe-deposit boxes. Clients wishing to store anything from stock certificates to valuable paintings could deposit their belongings anonymously, through a series of high-tech veils of privacy, withdrawing items at any time, also in total anonymity.

As Sophie pulled the taxi to a stop in front of the destination, Langdon gazed out at the building’s uncompromising architecture and senses the Depository Bank of Zurich was a firm with little sense of humour. The building was a windowless rectangle that seemed to be forged entirely of dull steel. Resembling an enormous metal brick, the edifice sat back from the road with a fifteen-foot-tall, neon, equilateral cross glowing over its facade.

Switzerland’s reputation for secrecy in banking had become one of the country’s most lucrative exports. Facilities like this had become controversial in the art community because they provided a perfect place for art thieves to hide stolen goods, for years if necessary, until the heat was off. Because deposits were protected from police inspection by privacy laws and were attached to numbered accounts rather than people’s names, thieves could rest easily knowing their stolen goods were safe and could never be traced to them.

Sophie stopped the taxi at an imposing gate that blocked the bank’s driveway - cement-lined ramp that descended beneath the building. A video camera overhead was aimed directly at them, and Langdon had the feeling that this camera, unlike those at the Louvre, was authentic.

Sophie rolled down the window and surveyed the electronic podium on the driver’s seat. An LCD screen provided directions in seven languages. Topping the list was English.

INSERT KEY.

Sophie took the gold laser-pocked key from her pocket and turned her attention back to the podium. Below the screen was a triangular hole.

‘‘Something tells me it will fit,’’ Langdon said.

Sophie aligned the key’s triangular shaft with the hole and inserted it, sliding it in until the entire shaft had disappeared. This key apparently required no turning. Instantly, the gate began to swing open. Sophie took her foot off the brake and coasted down to a second gate and podium. Behind her, the first gate closed, trapping them like a ship in a lock.

Langdon disliked the constricted sensation. Let’s hope this second gate works too.

This second podium bore familiar directions.

INSERT KEY.

When Sophie inserted the key, the second gate immediately opened. Moments later they were winding down the ramp into the belly of the structure.

The private garage was small and dim, with spaces for about a dozen cars. At the far end, Langdon spied the building’s main entrance. A red carpet stretched across the cement floor, welcoming visitors to a huge door that appeared to be forged of solid metal.

The foyer of the Depository Bank of Zurich employed as imposing a decor as any Langdon had ever seen. Where most banks were content with the usual polished marble and granite, this one had opted for wall-to-wall metal and rivets.

Who’s the decorator? Langdon wondered. Allied Steel?

Sophie looked equally intimidated as her eyes scanned the lobby.

The gray metal was everywhere - the floor, walls, counters, doors, even the lobby chairs appeared to be fashioned of molded iron. Nonetheless, the effect was impressive. The message was clear: You are walking into a vault.

A large man behind the counter glanced up as they entered. He turned off the small television he was watching and greeted them with a pleasant smile. Despite his enormous muscles and visible sidearm, his diction chimed with the polished courtesy of a Swiss bellhop.

‘‘Bonsoir,’’ he said. ‘‘How may I help you?’’

The dual-language greeting was the newest hospitality trick of the European host. It presumed nothing and opened the door for the guest to reply in whichever language was more comfortable.

Sophie replied with neither. She simply laid the gold key on the counter in front of the man.

The man glanced down and immediately stood straighter. ‘‘Of course. Your elevator is at the end of the hall. I will alert someone that you are on your way.’’

Sophie nodded and took her key back. ‘‘Which floor?’’

The man gave her an odd look. ‘‘Your key instructs the elevator which floor.’’

She smiled. ‘‘Ah, yes.’’

The guard watched as the two newcomers made their way to the elevator, inserted their key, boarded the lift, and disappeared. As soon as the door had closed, he grabbed the phone. He was not calling to alert anyone of their arrival; there was no need for that. A vault greeter already had been alerted automatically when the client’s key was inserted outside in the entry gate.

Instead, the guard was calling the bank’s night manager.

(abridged from The Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown)

NOTES:

The Depository Bank of Zurich - Банк-депозитарий Цюриха

Geldschranck (нем.) - несгораемый шкаф, сейф

anonyme Lager (нем.) - анонимный вклад

Allied Steel - крупная компания по производству стали

an equilateral cross - равносторонний крест

vault - хранилище, сейф. (стальная) камера

an LCD screen - a liquid crystal display - жидкокристаллический экран

rectangle - прямоугольник

triangular - треугольный

bonsoir (фр.) - добрый вечер

VOCABULARY

maintain vt 1. - поддерживать, сохранять He tried to maintain friendly relations with everybody. Its a policeman’s job to maintain law and order 2. - обслуживать, сохранять в хорошем состоянии How do you manage to maintain such a big house?; maintenance n - поддержание, сохранение; уход, содержание и техническое обслуживание Who looks after the maintenance of these machines?

expand vt,vi - расширять(ся), увеличивать(ся), развивать(ся) Our foreign trade has expanded recently. Metals expand when they are heated; expansion - рост, развитие, расширение expansion of territory, expansion of currency This road needs expansion

store vt 1. (sth up) - наполнять, запасать, накапливать Squirrels store up food for the winter; 2. - хранить на складе He stored his furniture here when he went to America; store n 1. - запас, резерв She has a good store of provisions in the house; Phr in store for sb Who knows what the future has in store for us? 2.- склад, магазин (преим. амер.) a clothing store; (pl) the big department stores of London; a general store; a chain-store

withdraw vt,vi 1.- забирать, брать назад, отзывать The parents withdrew the boy from school; 2.- снимать, изымать (деньги, вклады) withdraw money from the Bank; withdraw dirty banknotes from circulation 3. - забирать свои слова (обещания, предложение) назад He refused to withdraw the offending expression; 4. - уходить, удаляться They demanded that all foreign troops should be withdrawn from the country; withdrawal n - уход, взятие назад, отмена

item n 1. - пункт, параграф, статья The first item on the agenda was the most important; 2. - новость, статья, небольшая заметка в газете Are there any interesting news items in the paper this morning?

resemble - походить, иметь сходство She resembles her mother. These two objects resemble in shape but not in colour; resemblance n - сходство There is very little resemblance between the brothers.

facilities n (pl) - удобства, средства обслуживания; оборудования, средства, устройства facilities for travel, for sport, for study; sport facilities facilitate vt - облегчить Modern inventions have facilitated house work

impose vt,vi 1. - облагать (налогом, сбором), налагать (обязательства) New duties have been imposed on wines and spirits. I must perform the task that has been imposed on me; 2. - навязывать Don’t impose your company who don’t want you; imposing adj - производящий сильное впечатление, внушительный, импозантный She was an imposing old lady

survey vt 1. - обозревать, осматривать He surveyed the countryside from the top of the hill; 2. - делать обзор The Prime Minister in his speech at the Guildhall surveyed the international situation; survey n - обозрение, осмотр, обзор make a general survey of the situation

insert vt - вставлять, вкладывать She inserted the key in the lock. He inserted a new paragraph into his essay

apparent adj - явный, очевидный, видимый, кажущийся It was quite apparent to us that ... In spite of her apparent indifference she was deeply interested in the work; apparently adv явно, очевидно, несомненно

Ex. 7. Answer the questions about the text.

1. What bank did Langdon and Sophie go to? 2. What are such banks known for? 3. What services did the bank offer? 4. What did the bank look like on the outside? 5. What is Switzerland’s reputation in banking? 6. Why are such facilities reguarded controversial in the art community? 7. How did Sophie and Langdon get inside the building? 8. What did the foyer of the bank look like? 9. Who greeted them at the counter?

Ex. 8. Find in the text the English for the following words and phrases:

предоставлять услуги; номерной счет в банке; расширять свои услуги; иначе известный как; хранить; сертификаты акций; ценные картины; забирать; перед местом назначения; смотреть с любопытством; чувствовать; напоминать огромный металлический слиток; учреждения; противоречивый; художественное сообщество; предоставлять место; законы сохранения тайны (вкладов); внушительного вида ворота; видеокамера направлена на; подлинная, настоящая; опустить стекло (в машине); оглядеть площадку; наверху списка; трехгранная дырка; ключ подойдет; вставить ключ; не нужно было поворачивать ключ; заключить в ловушку; места для десятка машин; заметить; прилавок, стойка; впечатляющий эффект; приветствовать; вежливость, галантность; двуязычное приветствие; ответить; предупреждать, приводить в готовность; направиться; схватить телефон.

Ex. 9. a) From the use of the words in the text explain the difference in the meanings:

to gaze - to survey - to spy - to scan - to glance - to give an odd look - to watch

b) Fill in the blanks with the words from assignment a). Some of the words are used several times.

1. Yesterday I ................... out of the window and noticed a man observing a house opposite through a telescope. 2. I ................ at the people wondering what they were doing there. 3. They .................... the games while sitting under the trees. 4. She ................ the doctor’s face for a sign of hope. 5. They ................ the house before they decided to buy it. 6. He ..................... someone coming up the garden path. 7. When I asked him a question he .............me ...................... 8. The children were.................... at the toys in the shop window. 9. Don’t just stand there ..................: do something. 10 You are quick at ................... her faults. 11. They ....................... the sky for enemy aeroplanes.

  1. Translate into English.

1. Несколько покупателей приходили вчера, чтобы осмотреть магазин. 2. Она быстро взглянула на записку и отложила ее в сторону. 3. Когда она задала ему вопрос о его работе, он посмотрен на ее как-то странно. 4. Она наблюдала за людьми, собравшимися на площади, из окна своего дома. 5. Он вглядывался в лицо врача, пытаясь найти признаки надежды. 6. Дети с любопытством наблюдали за действиями клоуна. 7. Она очень подозрительна. Она всегда замечает малейшие недостатки своих знакомых.

Ex. 10. Explain or paraphrase the following phrases:

full modern array of anonymous services

the bread and butter of its operations

safe-deposit boxes

a fifteen-foot-tall, neon, equilateral cross

until the heat was off

provided directions

topping the list was English

trapping them like a ship in a lock

wall-to-wall metal and rivets

a visible sidearm

polished courtesy

the dual language greeting

opened the door for the guest

to alert anyone

Ex. 11. Compete the sentences with the following words:

expand(2) item(2) maintain(2) maintenance resemble resemblance(2) store( v.n.) withdraw(2)

1. The two countries ....................... friendly relations for many years. 2. The narrow path ................... into a wide road. 3. What are the most interesting .................. in today’s newspapers? 4. She .................... her sister in appearance but not in character. 5. He always keeps a good ............... of food in case he can’t get to the shops. 6. The ............................ of the house is more than I can pay for. 7. You should ................. your short story by 50 pages. 8. The commander ordered that the troops should ........................ from the exposed position. 9.There is a strong ..................... between him and her, isn’t there? - I don’t see the .........................! 10. He ...................... $50 from his bank account. 11. It’s the job of the police to ........................ law and order. 12. He .................... his horse from the race. 13. The list contained twenty .................. 14. She ....................... her furniture in our empty house when she went to India.

Ex. 12. Translate into English.

1. Содержание такого большого дома очень дорогое. Совершенно очевидно, что он не может себе это позволить. 2. Художник хотел, чтобы ему сделали стенной шкаф, где бы он мог хранить свои краски, кисти и все необходимое для рисования. 3. Если вы хотите снять некоторую сумму с вашего счета, вы можете это сделать в любом филиале банка. 4. Обсудив предложения по сокращению расходов на содержание здания, члены совета перешли к обсуждению других вопросов повестки дня (on the agenda)). 5. Потенциальные покупатели осмотрели магазины, предложенные на продажу. 6. Он предложил вложить деньги в расширение бизнеса в северных регионах. 7. Последний обзор показал, что в медицинских учреждениях в сельской местности не хватает квалифицированного персонала и современного оборудования. 8. Она очень похожа на свою старшую сестру, как внешне, так и по характеру. 9. Его смущение было очевидным, когда его застали просматривающим конфиденциальные файлы. 10. Некоторые члены муниципального совета предлагали ввести дополнительные местные налоги. 11. Все перечисленные предметы будут доставлены в течение недели. 12. Он настаивал на поддержании дружественных отношений с конкурентами. 13. Она опустила несколько монет в автомат для кофе, но не получила ничего. Очевидно, машина сломалась. 14. Я не хочу навязывать тебе свои взгляды, но тебе следует более внимательно рассмотреть их предложение. 15. К сожалению, в городе нет хороших условий для занятий спортом. 16. Вид с холма очень красивый. В этом месте река расширяясь, ( into) образовала озеро.

Ex. 13. Here are some useful words connected with buying, selling and paying.

Personal finance

Sometimes in a shop they ask you: ‘How do you want to pay?’

You can answer: ‘Cash / By cheque / By credit card.’

In a bank you usually have a current account, which is one where you pay in your salary and the withdraw money to pay your everyday bills. The bank send you a regular bank statement telling you how much money is in your account. You may also have a savings account where you deposit any extra money that you have and only take money out when you want to spend it on something special. You usually try to avoid having an overdraft or you end up paying a lot of interest. If your account is overdrawn, you can be said to be in the red (as opposed to in the black or in credit).

Sometimes the bank may lend you money - this is called a bank loan. If the bank (or building society) lends you to buy a house, that money is called a mortgage.

When you buy (or, more formally, purchase) something in a shop, you usually pay for it outright but sometimes you buy on credit. Sometimes you may be offered a discount or a reduction on something you buy at a shop. This means that you get, say, £10 off perhaps because you are a student. You are often offered a discount if you buy in bulk. It is not usual to haggle about prices in a British shop, as it is in, say a Turkish market. If you want to return something which you have bought to a shop, you may be given a refund, i.e. your money will be returned, provided you have a receipt.

The money that you pay for services, e.g. to a school or a lawyer, is usually called a fee or fees; the money paid for a journey is a fare.

If you buy something that you feel was very good value, it’s a bargain. If you feel that it is definitely not worth what you paid for it, then you can call it a rip-off (very colloquial).

Public finance

The government collects money from citizens through taxes. Income tax is the tax collected on wages and salaries. Inheritance tax is collected on what people inherit from others. Customs or excise duties have to be paid on goods imported from other countries. VAT or value added tax is a tax paid on most goods and services when they are bought or purchased. Companies pay corporation tax on their profits. If you pay too much tax, you should be given some money back, a tax rebate.

The government also sometimes pays out money to people in need, e.g. unemployment benefit (also known informally as the dole), disability allowances and students grants (to help pay for studying) Recipients draw a pension / unemployment benefit or are on the dole or on social security.

Every country has its own special currency. Every day the rates of exchange are published and you can discover, for example, how many dollars there are currently to the pound sterling.

A company may sell shares to members of the public who are then said to have invested in that company. They should be paid a regular dividend on their investment, depending on the profit or loss made by the company.

  1. Translate the words and phrases in bold into Russian.

  2. Match the words on the left with their definitions on the right:

interest .......................... a) a bank account with minus money in it

mortgage........................... b) money paid towards the cost of raising a family

an overdrawn account....... c) money given by the government for education, welfare

inheritance tax................... d) an account that is used mainly for keeping money

savings account .................e) money which has to be paid on what you inherit

fee..................................... f) money paid to people after a certain age

pension.............................. g) an account that cheques are drawn on for day-to-day use

current account.................. h) money chargeable on a loan

currency............................. i) money paid to people with a handicap

grant .................................. j) a loan to purchase property

child benefit ..................... k) money lent by the bank

a bank loan ....................... l) money that is actually in use in a country

disability allowance.......... m) charge or payment for professional advice or services

haggle .............................. n) an amount of money that can be taken off the full price

discount ........................... o) argue or dispute the price of sth or the terms of a bargain

  1. Complete the sentences with the words in bold.

  1. Money which has to be paid on what you inherit is known as ..............................

  2. If the bank (or building society) lends you money to buy a house, that money is called ...........................

  3. If you have money in your account, you are in the ....................

  4. I paid too much tax last year so I should get a .......................... soon.

  5. If this telephone is no good, take it back to the shop and ask for a .......................

  6. People should be paid a regular ...................... on their investment.

  7. Companies pay ............................ on their profits.

  8. You are often offered a discount if you buy ............................

  9. When you purchase something in a shop, you usually pay for it ......................, but sometimes you buy on .......................

  10. If you have an overdraft you may have to end up paying a lot of ...................

  11. It is not usual to ..................... about prices in a British shop, as it is in a Turkish market.

  1. Translate into English.

1. Он каждый месяц снимает деньги со своего текущего счета, чтобы заплатить по счетам за газ, электричество и отопление. 2. Она решила положить деньги, полученные от продажи картин, на депозитный счет, чтобы накопить сумму, достаточную для покупки дома загородом. 3. Тебе не следует снимать со счета больше, чем там есть, иначе тебе придется платить большие проценты. 5. В то время у него не было достаточно денег, чтобы приобрести новый ноутбук, и поэтому он решил купить его в кредит. 6. Чтобы привлечь покупателей, магазины предлагают скидки на свой товар обычно два раза в год. 7. В магазинах Британии нельзя торговаться так, как это возможно на рынках и в магазинах Индии. 8. Вы можете вернуть в магазин то, что вы купили, и вы получите возврат денег, если у вас есть чек. 9. Она провела весь день в магазинах, но не сожалела об этом, так как была уверена, что сделала ряд хороших покупок. 10. Подоходный налог собирается со всех работающих. 11. В прошлом году таможенная пошлина на новые автомашины выросла на 10%. 12. НДС - это налог, который необходимо платить при покупке большинства товаров и услуг. 13. После того как его уволили в связи с закрытием предприятия, он живет на пособие по безработице. 14. Газеты публикуют обменный курс каждый день. Вы также можете его узнать по интернету. 15. Акционерам выплачивают дивиденды в зависимости от величины доходов и убытков компании.

Ex. 14. Find answers to the following money quiz from the list below (a-j).

  1. What currencies are used in Japan, Australia, India, Britain?

  2. What does the expression ‘hard currency’ mean?

  3. Name two credit cards which are usable world-wide.

  4. Give two examples of imports that most countries impose customs duties on.

  5. When are you said to be in the red?

  6. What is value added tax?

  7. Give three examples of kinds of income that would be classed as unearned?

  8. Where can you find out how many dollars there are currently to the pound sterling?

  9. What is the Dow Jones index and what are its equivalents in London and Japan?

  10. Give and example of something that is priceless and something that is valueless.

  1. If your account is overdrawn.

  2. American Express and Visa.

  3. Rents from property; winnings from gambling; interest from investment.

  4. Japan - yen; Australia - dollar; India - rupee; Britain - pound sterling.

  5. Alcohol and tobacco.

  6. It is a tax paid on most goods and services when they are bought or purchased.

  7. An ancient Greek vase in perfect condition is priceless and an old ballpen that doesn’t work is valueless.

  8. From the rate of exchange published every day.

  9. It is any currency reliable and stable.

  10. It is an index used for calculating the value of shares on the Stock Exchange in New York. The FT (or Footsie) Index in London and the Nikkei in Japan.

Ex. 15. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.

Credit Cards

The first .......................... step towards creating a credit card EXPERIMENT was taken by a US company in 1914. They issued an unsophisticated

metal token to their ............................, allowing them to defer their CUSTOM bills. But ................... half a century was to pass before the NEAR ............................ of establishing a universal credit card would be POSSIBLE taken ......................... France was the leader, creating the ‘Carte Bleue’. SERIOUS Barclays bank in Britain .................... followed. When the Visa system QIUCK was developed in 1977, credit rose, with most card ..................... joining HOLD this ....................... credit network. By 1994 the Visa system had a credit GLOBE total of $207,4 billion in 2.8 million ......................... in Europe. The LOCATE credit card has .....................become international. TRUE



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