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КРАЕВОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

СРЕДНЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«МИНУСИНСКИЙ МЕДИЦИНСКИЙ ТЕХНИКУМ»

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ

ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

для студентов медицинских специальностей

МИНУСИНСК, 2010

КРАЕВОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

СРЕДНЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«МИНУСИНСКИЙ МЕДИЦИНСКИЙ ТЕХНИКУМ»

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ

ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

для студентов медицинских специальностей

МИНУСИНСК, 2010

81.2 Англ.я 723

С 23

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

для студентов медицинских специальностей/Сост.: Краськова И.Р./2010.- 68с.

В сборнике собраны и систематизированы тексты для чтения по английскомк языку имеющие медицинскую направленность. Все тексты аутентичны, содержат дополнительные упражнения для развития основных видов речевой деятельности: чтения, письма, говорения.

Сборник предназначен для преподавателей и студентов медицинских специальностей.

5

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read and learn the following words and word combinations:

1. skeletal скелетный

2. muscular мышечный

3. digestive пищеварительный

4. respiratory дыхательный

5. urinary мочевой

6. endocrine эндокринный

7. reproductive репродуктивный, половой

8. bone кость

9. ligament связка

10.cartilage хрящ

11.join соединять

12.structural структурный

13.spinal спинной, позвоночный

14.cord столб

15.vessel сосуд

16.pump насос

17.stream ток, поток

18.alimentary пищеварительный

19.gland железа

20.convey передавать, переносить

21. carbon dioxide двуокись углерода

22. kidney почка

23.urine моча

24.ureter мочеточник

25.urinary bladder мочевой пузырь

26.to be stored сохраняться, храниться, скапливаться

27.discharge удалять, выводить из организма

28.hormone гормон

6

SYSTEMS OF THE BODY

There are several main systems of the body: the skeletal, the muscular, the nervous, the digestive, the respiratory, the urinary, the endocrine and the reproductive systems.

The skeletal system consists of the bones of the body and ligaments and cartilages, which join them. The chief function of the skeletal system is structural.

The muscular system consists of the skeletal muscles and their associated structures. The main function of this system is to move us about.

The nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, nerves, ganglia and receptors. It is a complex information system with all the necessary means for receiving, processing and communicating information.

The circulatory system consists of the heart and blood vessels and the blood, which is pumped through the blood vessels by the heart. Its function is mainly that of transportation system: the nutrients, oxygen, special substances which are required by cells are carried by the blood stream; and the cellular wastes and sometimes other materials produced by the cells are carried away by the blood stream.

The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and a number of associated glands.

The respiratory system consists of the lungs, the air passages leading to them and associated structures. Its main function is to convey oxygen to the lungs, where it can enter the blood stream and to remove carbon dioxide, which escapes from the blood into the lung spaces.

The urinary system consists of the kidneys which produce urine by removing nitrogenous and other wastes from the blood: the two ureters, which convey the urine away from the kidneys; the urinary bladder, where the urine is stored until it is discharged; and the urethra through which the urine is discharged.

7

The endocrine system consists of a number of glands throughout the body, which produce regulatory substances called hormones. The endocrine system serves to regulate a large number of activities

NOTES

1. To move us about – осуществлять наше движение

2. For receiving, processing and communicating information – для

получения обработки и передачи информации

3. Which are required by cells – которые необходимы клеткам

4 .by removing nitrogenous and other wastes – путем выведения

азотосодержащих и других продуктов отхода

  1. where urine is stored – где накапливается моча

EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

  1. которые их соединяют

  2. основная функция

  3. со всеми необходимыми средствами

  4. несколько основных систем

  5. переносится кровотоком

  6. ведущих к ним воздухоносных путей

  7. где он поступает в кровоток

  8. выводить мочу из почек

  9. до тех пор, пока она не выведена

  10. вырабатываются вещества – регуляторы

EXERCISE 2. Найдите в тексте предложения, которые содержат следующие слова и словосочетания:

  1. main systems of the body

  2. the skeletal system

  3. to move about

  4. a complex information system

8

  1. to be pumped through the blood vessels

  2. transportation system

  3. a number of associated glands

  4. to convey oxigen

  5. until it is discharged

  6. a large number of activities

EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  1. What are the functions of the skeletal and muscular system?

  2. What is carried by the blood stream?

  3. What is the chief function of the blood?

  4. What does the nervous system consist of?

  5. What is the main function of the respiratory system?

  6. What does the urinary system consist of?

  7. How do the kidneys produce urine?

  8. How is the urine discharged from the body?

EXERCISE 4. Составьте предложения из разбросанных слов:

  1. The, system, begins, digestive, mouth, the, with.

  2. Function, to remove, major, the, of, urinary, the, system, urine, is.

  3. Is, the, system, of, complex, one, the, nervous, most, systems, all, of, body, human

  4. Lymph, are, blood, and, the, tissues, body, of, liquid, the.

  5. Includes, muscles, the, and, musculoskeletal, system, bones, joints.

EXERCISE 5.Вставьте пропущенные слова:

  1. Another important function of the kidney is to maintain the balance of water, salt and acid in the body fluids.

  2. The brain is the center for regulating and coordinating body activities.

  3. Respiration is the process of breathing.

9

  1. The blood and lymphatic systems have many .

  2. Joints are the places where come together.

  3. The endocrine system is composed of located in different regions of the body.

EXERCISE 6. Вставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

  1. … main systems of body have groups of organs working together to perform complex functions.

  2. … mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines are organs which compose digestive system.

  3. There are some organs within each system.

  4. … circulatory system is also called cardiovascular system.

  5. The main function of respiratory system is to convey oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide

EXERCISE 7. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:

  1. Организм человека насчитывает несколько систем. Это группы органов, совместно функционирующие для выполнения сложных функций организма человека.

  2. Пищеварительная система начинается в полости рта.

  3. Нервная система – это самая сложная информационная система.

  4. Главная функция мышечной системы – это осуществление движения.

  5. Суставы – это места соединения костей.

  6. Эндокринная система состоит из желез, расположенных в различных частях организма человека.

  7. Скелетная система состоит из костей, а также связок и хрящей, соединяющих их.

  8. Сердечно – сосудистая система выполняет транспортную функцию в организме

EXERCISE 8. Перескажите текст, пользуясь планом на с.65.

10

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read and learn the following words and word combinations:

  1. immunity иммунитет

  2. resistance сопротивляемость

  3. provide обеспечивать

  4. antibody антитело

  5. antitoxin антитоксин

  6. causative причинный

  7. stimulate стимулировать

  8. foreign body чужеродное тело

  9. transplant трансплантант

  10. transfusion переливание (крови)

  11. incompatible несоответствующий, несовместимый

  12. antigen антиген

  13. involve вовлекать

  14. overcome подавлять

  15. concerned имеющий отношение, связанный

  16. remain оставаться

  17. acquired immunity приобретенный иммунитет

  18. reproduce воспроизводить

  19. artificially искусственно

  20. vaccination вакцинация

  21. host хозяин

  22. thus таким образом

  23. subsequent последующий

  24. immediately сразу же

  25. exposure проявление

  26. inherit наследовать

11

IMMUNITY

Immunity means resistance to disease. It is provided by certain white blood cells, which release antibodies and antitoxins into the blood plasma. Many causative factors can stimulate white cells to produce antibodies antitoxins; for example, microorganisms; bacterial, plant and animals toxins; foreign bodies; transplants; transfusion of incompatible blood cells. All such factors are called antigens.

When infection occurs, inflammation results, and part of this defensive reaction involves antibodies and antitoxins. They are present in the blood and help overcome the microorganisms concerned. Some of these antibodies and antitoxins can remain in the blood for life and prevent any repetition of the same infection. Such life-long protection is called acquired immunity; but unfortunately it does not occur for every type of microorganism.

However, where immunity is possible it can be reproduced artificially in people who have never been infected by a particular microorganism. It may be done by giving a non-immune person a dose of dead microorganisms. This is called vaccination. Dead microorganisms cannot produce disease but they do stimulate the host’s body to produce antibodies and antitoxins against the particular microorganisms concerned. Thus any subsequent infection with these organisms is immediately overcome by the antibodies and antitoxins already present. If there has been no vaccination or prior exposure to disease, acquired immunity is not present. However, all individuals inherit some degree of natural immunity and this helps explain why some people are more resistant to disease than others.

NOTES

  1. inflammation results – наступает воспаление

  2. such lifelong protection – Такая защита, имеющая место на протяжении всей жизни

  3. dead microorganisms – ослабленные микроорганизмы

12

EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1.Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

  1. Невосприимчивость к заболеванию

  2. Вырабатывать антитела

  3. Все факторы

  4. Они присутствуют в крови

  5. Предупреждать повторное инфицирование

  6. Приобретенный иммунитет

  7. искусственно

  8. Вакцинация

  9. Они действительно стимулируют

  10. Таким образом

  11. Наследовать

  12. Врожденный иммунитет

  13. Это помогает объяснить

EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте предложения из текста со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:

  1. to be provided

  2. Causative factors

  3. Antigents

  4. to involve

  5. to help overcome

  6. to remain for life

  7. to occur

  8. to be reproduced artificially

  9. a non- immune person

  10. dead microorgamisms

  11. a subsequent infection

  12. prior exposure

  13. more resistant to disease

13

EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  1. What is immunity?

  2. What is it provided by?

  3. What factors can stimulate white cells to produce antibodies and antitoxins?

  4. What happens when infection occurs?

  5. How long can antibodies and antitoxins remain in the blood?

  6. Does acquired immunity occur for every type of microorganism?

  7. Can it be reproduced artificially?

  8. How may it be done?

  9. What do dead microorganisms stimulate?

  10. Is acquired immunity always present?

  11. What is natural immunity?

EXERCISE 4. Поставьте артикли, где это необходимо:

Where immunity to particular disease is not present, it can be provided by vaccination to prevent that disease; but it can also be introduced by injecting antibodies or antitoxins to treat or temporarily prevent disease concerned. Such protection is called passive immunity and is commonly used against tetanus. During pregnancy mother passes on her own antibodies and antitoxins to her unborn baby and this provides passive immunity for first few months after birth.

EXERCISE 5. Поставьте предлоги, где это необходимо:

Some people have a defective immune system and are accordingly much more susceptible infection. Such individuals are said to be immune – compromised and one the most important examples is the destruction the body’s defense mechanism by the AIDS virus, resulting death from an inability to resist infection.

Other immune – compromised patients may be those suffering leukemia, kidney failure and diabetes; and those taking drugs which suppress immunity; for example, cytotoxics, used the treatment of cancer, and drugs used to prevent rejection transplants.

14

EXERCISE 6. Составьте предложения, используя следующие слова:

  1. Is, immunity, by, provided, cells, white.

  2. Can, many, factors, white, stimulate, to produce, cells, antibodies, antitoxins, and.

  3. Antibodies, antitoxins, and, some, remain, of, for, can, in, remain, the, for, blood, life.

  4. Inherit, natural, individuals, all, degree, immunity, some, of.

EXERCISE 7. Переведите на английский язык:

  1. Иммунитет – это невосприимчивость к заболеванию.

  2. В теле человека лейкоциты выполняют функцию пожирателей болезнетворных бактерий.

  3. Воспаление – это защитная реакция организма в борьбе с болезнью.

  4. Существуют два вида иммунитета: врожденный и приобретенный.

  5. И.И.Мечников первым открыл явление иммунитета и назвал свою теорию фагоцитарной теорией иммунитета.

  6. Английский врач Эдвард Дженнер открыл способ искусственно создавать иммунитет к опасной болезни – натуральной оспе.

  7. Ослабленные микроорганизмы не могут вызвать заболевание, но они стимулируют выработку организмом антител и антитоксинов против микроорганизмов, вызывающих данное заболевание.

EXERCISE 8. Составьте 10 вопросов к тексту “Immunity”.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 9 Приготовьте пересказ текста “Immunity”.

15

TEXT B

If an infection is too virulent, or the body resistance too weak, the white cells are unable to contain the infection and it can spread throughout the body. Before the discovery of antibiotics, such spread was usually fatal. If the balance between infection and body resistance us equal, a condition of stalemate may supervene, often leading to a persistent state of chronic infection.

During the battle between invading bacteria and white cells in the inflamed area, many casualties occur. These dead white cells and bacteria form the creamy liquid known as pus. A localized collection of pus is called an abscess. Abscess of the skin are called boils. Sometimes pus formation spreads diffusely instead of forming an abscess. This is called cellulites.

In the absence of infection, pus formation does not occur and any damage done by the causal irritant is repaired.

Following inflammation the damage is repaired by white cells which rebuild the area by filling the breach with a temporary repair tissue called granulation tissue. This consists of rapidly growing white cells and new capillaries which form fibrous scaffolding in which damaged parts are removed and reconstruction take place. But repair cannot take place in the presence of pus.

16

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read and learn the following words

  1. contain содержать

  2. plasma плазма

  3. microscopical микроскопический

  4. element элемент

  5. erythrocyte эритроцит

  6. leucocyte лейкоцит

  7. thrombocyte тромбоцит

  8. bone marrow костный мозг

  9. transport транспортировать, переносить

  10. convert преобразовывать,превращать

  11. carry переносить

  12. arrive прибывать

  13. expel вытеснять, выводить

  14. catabolism катаболизм

  15. hemoglobin (haemoglobin) гемоглобин

  16. agranulocyte агранулоцит

  17. cytoplasm цитоплазма

  18. granulocyte гранулоцит

  19. eosinophil иозофил

  20. basophil базофил

  21. neutrophil нейтрофил

  22. node узел

  23. spleen селезенка

  24. lymphocyte лимфоцит

  25. monocyte моноцит

  26. platelet тромбоцит

  27. tiny крошечный

  28. blood clotting свертываемость крови

  29. occur происходить, случаться

  30. remain оставаться

  31. coagulation коагуляция

  32. complete заканчивать

17

BLOOD

Blood contains a fluid called plasma plus microscopical cellular elements: erythrocytes, leucocytes, and thrombocytes.

Erythrocytes are red blood cells of which 4.5 – 5 million are found in each cubic millimeter. These cells are made in the bone marrow and are important in transporting oxygen from the lungs through the blood stream to the cells all over the body. The oxygen is then used up by body cells in the process of converting food to energy (catabolism). Hemoglobin, containing iron, is an important protein in erythrocytes, which helps in carrying the oxygen as it travels through the blood stream. Erythrocytes also carry away carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of catabolism of food in cells, from the body cells to the lungs. On arriving there it is expelled in the process of breathing.

Leucocytes are white blood cells from 4.000 to 10.000 per cubic millimeter exiting in several types: granulocytes and agranulocytes, which are also subdivided into different types.

Granulocytes are cells with granules in their cytoplasm formed in the bone marrow. There are three types of granulocytes: eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils.

Agranulocytes are produced in lymph nodes and spleen. There are two types of agranulocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes.

Thrombocytes or platelets are tiny cells formed in the bone marrow. They are necessary for blood clotting. Their number is 400.000 per cubic millimeter. The plasma is the fluid portion before clotting has occurred. The serum is the fluid portion of blood remaining after the coagulation process is completed.

The body contains about five liters of blood kept at a constant temperature of 37*C. Blood consists of three different types of cell floating in a liquid called plasma. The blood cells are known as red cells, white cells and platelets. Red cells and platelets are unique among body cells in having no nucleus. Blood cells are so small that one cubic

18

millimeter of blood (the size of a pin head) contains about five million red cells, 7.000 white cells and 250.000 platelets.

The red blood cells contain a pigment called hemoglobin, which gives the blood its red color. The main function of red cells is to carry oxygen to the body cells.

For its journey from the lungs to the body cells, oxygen combines with hemoglobin of the red cells. It is then released from the hemoglobin when the body cells are reached. Some people do not have enough hemoglobin in their red cells and are consequently short of oxygen. This condition is called anemia and such people tire easily, become breathless on exertion and have a pale complexion. They need special care during general anesthesia.

The white blood cells defend the body against disease. They do this by attacking germs and repairing damage.

The function of platelets is to stop bleeding. They do this in two ways: by blocking the cut blood vessels; and by producing substances, which help the blood to clot.

EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1 Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

  1. микроскопические клеточные элементы

  2. в каждом кубическом миллиметре

  3. через кровоток

  4. по всему организму

  5. процесс превращения пищи в энергию

  6. выводить

  7. продукт отхода

  8. выталкивать, выбрасывать

  9. несколько видов

  10. лимфатические узлы

  11. крошечные клетки

  12. свертываемость крови

  13. завершаться

19

EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями из текста:

  1. to call

  2. to be found

  3. bone marrow

  4. to be used

  5. to convert

  6. iron

  7. to be expelled

  8. spleen

  9. a fluid portion

  10. coagulation process

EXERCISE 3 Переведите следующие словосочетания:

  1. the habit of smocking

  2. the way of producing it

  3. the hope of seeing you

  4. the chance of getting the prize

  5. the method of transporting

  6. the necessity of knowing

  7. the importance of carrying away waste products

  8. the time of arriving

  9. the fact of existing

EXERCISE4. Составьте предложения, используя следующие модели, переведите на русский язык:

MODEL: You can learn English.(to work hard)

You can learn English by working hard.

1. You can improve your health (to walk in the evening, to have a proper diet, to follow your doctor’s advice).

20

2. You will help me (to take part in the conference, to deliver a lecture on Monday, to organize a seminar).

3. You can keep up your English (to read books in the original, to learn grammar, to work with a tape- recorder).

EXERCISE 5. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  1. What does blood contain?

  2. How many erythrocytes can be found in each cubic millimeter/

  3. Where are these cells made?

  4. What is their function?

  5. What role does hemoglobin play?

  6. What are the types of leucocytes?

  7. 7.Where are agranulocytes produced?

  8. 8.What types of granulocytes do you know?

  9. 9.What organ forms thrombocytes?

  10. How many platelets are there in one cubic millimeter?

  11. 11.What is the difference between the plasma and serum?

EXERCISE 6. Вставьте артикли, где это необходимо:

1. Blood contains … fluid called plasma and cellular elements.

2. Erythrocytes (red blood cells) are important in … gas exchange taking place in … lungs.

3. Leucocytes (white blood cells) are subdivided into … different types.

4. Granulocytes are formed in … bone marrow.

5. Agranulocytes are produced in … lymph nodes and … spleen.

6. Platelets are … tiny cells formed in the bone remaining after … coagulation process is the serum.

EXERCISE7. Вставьте предлоги или наречия:

  1. Thrombocytes are necessary … blood clotting.

  2. The plasma is the fluid portion … clotting has occurred.

  3. There are two types … agranulocytes.

  4. 21

  5. Granulocytes are cells … granules in their cytoplasm.

  6. The number of leucocytes is … 4.000 … 10.000 per cubic millimeter.

  7. The oxygen is used … body cells in the process …converting food … energy.

  8. Carbon dioxide is expelled … the process … breathing.

  9. Erythrocytes transport oxygen … the lungs … the blood stream … the cells of the body.

  10. They also carry … a waste product … catabolism.

EXERCISE8. Закончите предложение, используя окончание ing. Слова из правой колонки вам помогут:

  1. Do you mind my… to ask you

  2. I insist on … to do it now, not tomorrow

  3. The lecturer began … to speak on gas exchange in the lungs

  4. It’s no use … to try it again

  5. He stopped … to do laboratory experiments on blood

  6. Most of us dislike the idea of … to be examined

  7. We had no difficulty in … to learn the blood formula

  8. Please go on … to speak on the topic

  9. I can not help … to visit my sister, who is ill

  10. The students made much progress to learn this material in Physiology by…

EXERCISE 9. Составьте 10 вопросов к тексту “Blood”.

EXERCISE 10. Приготовьте пересказ текста “Blood”.

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ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read learn the following words and word combinations:

  1. mean означать

  2. invasion инвазия, вторжение

  3. saliva слюна

  4. contaminated зараженный

  5. skin cuts порезы

  6. abrasion абразия

  7. staff персонал

  8. defence оборона

  9. intact неповрежденный

  10. surface поверхность

  11. liquid жидкость

  12. produce производить

  13. poison яд

  14. kill убивать

  15. tears слезы

  16. sweat пот

  17. similar подобный, схожий

INFECTION

Infection means invasion of the body by microorganisms, which are harmful. The most common sources of infection in medical practice are direct contact with a patient’s blood and saliva, consequently instruments and equipment used in the treatment become contaminated. If no action were taken infection may enter the body through skin cuts or abrasions or the eyes, it may also be swallowed. Infection from the contamination would be passed on from patient to patient, from patient to staff and from staff to patient. This involvement is called cross – infection.

Even ancient people taught that body’s first of defense against infection was an intact surface, e.g. the outer layer of skin and the protective outer layer of

23

mucous membrane. If infection had passed it the second line of defense started its action. It was the liquid secretion produced by the protective surfaces. The mucous membrane and the salivary glands had produced saliva, which neutralized some bacterial poisons and could kill some microorganisms. Tears and sweat had a similar effect. The acidity of gastric juice killed many bacteria in food. The third line of defense is discovered now. It is immunity.

And we also know that if these defense mechanisms fail to prevent infection, the last line of defense is a response by the body called inflammation.

EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

  1. Означать

  2. Кровь и слюна пациента

  3. Через порезы на коже

  4. Глотать

  5. Наружный слой слизистой оболочки

  6. Продуцируемая защитной поверхностью

  7. Яды, вырабатываемые бактериями

  8. Желудочный сок

  9. Пища

  10. Ответная реакция

EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте предложения из текста со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:

  1. Direct

  2. Abrasion

  3. To teach

  4. To start

  5. To produce

  6. To kill

  7. To discover

  8. Mechanism

  9. Effect

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EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  1. What are the most common sources of infection?

  2. How may infection enter the body?

  3. What did ancient people teach?

  4. When does the second line of defense start its action?

  5. What is it produced by?

  6. What can saliva do?

  7. What effect do tears and sweat have?

  8. When was the third line discovered?

  9. What is the last line of defense?

EXERCISE4. Измените предложения в прошедшее совершенное время:

MODEL: They have finished the work (by 5 o’clock yesterday).

They had finished the work by 5 o’clock yesterday.

  1. My friend has prepared the report (by last Monday).

  2. The students have done the exercises (by the end of the lesson).

  3. Mother has cooked supper (by the time I came home).

  4. We have not seen our teacher (before the bell rang).

  5. Have you done the work (before I called you up)?

  6. He has translated the article (by this time yesterday).

  7. She has not bought a present for him (when we came to her place).

EXERCISE 5. Составьте 12 вопросов к тексту “Infection”.

EXERCISE 6. Приготовьте пересказ текста “Infection.

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TEXT B

In order to prevent cross – infection it is essential to kill all the microorganisms on infected instruments. This process is known as sterilization and means the killing of all microorganisms: bacteria, spores, fungi, and viruses. It is carried out immediately after completion of treatment so that all instruments are sterile again before use on the next patient.

Countless number of microorganisms lives on the skin and in the mouth, nose and throat. Normally they do no harm to their host as they living on an external surface and not among delicate internal cells. However, they may become harmful if they are introduced inside the body tissues, or are transferred from one person to another. This can occur when the tissues penetrated by contaminated forceps blade, scalper or syringe needle, and may give rise to harmful reaction. After each patient has left the surgery, it is the nurse`s duty to see that all instruments are properly sterilized before being used again for another patient.

As already mentioned, sterilization means killing not only bacteria and fungi, but all other microorganisms, including viruses and bacterial spores. Any method which kills bacteria and fungi but allows some spores or viruses to survive cannot be sterilization. The term used for this restricted range of action is disinfection.



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